Posts Tagged ‘muskrat lodge’

It had been a while since I had driven down the road that passes beside a large marsh west of here. In the summer, it is dense with cattails. It’s hard to see past the line of cattails lining the road. But now, the weight of the snow and the breaking down of the cattails has revealed…Muskratville!

The snow piled on domed roofs catches the eye and dozens of muskrat abodes have suddenly (it seems) been made visible. Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) build a couple of kinds of structures, lodges and pushups. Pushups are smaller than lodges and serve as resting places where muskrats can eat in safety.

Muskrats forage underwater for roots and underground stems of plants such as pondweed, water milfoil, and burr-reed. Using a line of pushups stretching away from its lodge, a muskrat can gather food farther away form its lodge than it could otherwise reach. As well as providing a feeding station, pushups also provide an insulated shelter out of the icy water that can quickly rob heat from the muskrat’s naked tail and feet.

Pushups are created in autumn, when the pond first freezes over. The muskrat chews a hole through the thin ice, often around an air bubble or a spot where marsh gas is escaping. Then the muskrat pushes up a pile of fine roots, submerged vegetation, and other debris to form a dome. As the pile grows, it forms an enclosed cavity on the ice surface.

The muskrat visits the pushup throughout the winter to keep the ice open. Pushups are generally constructed in straight lines, about 12 yards apart, in line with a favoured feeding ground. I’m not sure which of these structures might be lodges, and which might be pushups, but the many structures certainly suggest an active community.

For more on muskrats, see my November 17th post, Busy as a Beaver. You can also learn more at The Marvelous in Nature at Muskrat in our Meadow, and see another muskrat push-up at Back on the Blades.

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Down by the river, I noticed that a new house has been added to the neighbourhood. A very attractive dome-style home has been prepared by an industrious builder. The builder, though busy as a beaver, is a smaller cousin, a muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus).


As befits the smaller size of its resident, the lodge is quite a bit less ambitious than that of a beaver, but still represents a substantial mound of materials. While beavers use tree branches to build their winter home, muskrats are cattail specialists. The lodge is constructed by first heaping cattails with mud and other plant matter to form a mound. Then, a burrow is built into the lodge from underwater. Muskrats depend on cattails for food as well as housing. Although they will eat crayfish and fish, muskrat diets are primarily made up of cattails and other vegetation.


You can compare this muskrat house to the beaver lodge shown in this post: At Work Under the Beaver Moon. Although close to the river edge, this lodge is surrounded by water. The water must be deep enough so that it will not freeze to the bottom during the winter, but shallow enough to allow the growth of cattails and other vegetation. Ideally, the water should be between 1 and 2 metres deep. Areas with a good supply of bulrushes, cattails, pondweeds, or sedges are preferred. Ahhh, home, sweet home.


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